Celestial Order of the Si-Fan was created by author Sax Rohmer, and first appeared in his 1913 novel, The Hand of Fu-Manchu (1917) (original UK title: The Si-Fan Mysteries). It is an Asian secret society led by Dr. Fu Manchu.
Fu Manchu and the Si-Fan were adopted by Marvel under Steve Englehart and Jim Starlin in Special Marvel Edition #15 (1973), Fu Manchu was adapted as the father of martial artist hero Shang-Chi. However, after Marvel lost the license for the Sax Rohmer estate, Fu Manchu and Si-Fan were identified in continuity under aliases and pseudonyms.
Its adherants, all at Fu Manchu commands include Dacoits, Phansigars, Thugees, Hashishin, Templars, Cult of Kali and other more terrible cults.
At Marvel, the Si-Fan gets a modern retelling, at first it was shown as an army, but later it started to look like a ninja clan and bears similarities with the Triads.
Fu Manchu founded a larger group with several secret societies, the Order of the Golden Dawn in a temple in South America. The name refers to the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, an occult secret society that operated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Following the death of Fu Manchu, the Si-Fan began taking orders from his successor, his daughter, Fah Lo Suee, and for a time, it served the Kingpin, Under Kingpin's command, a clan of Cyber Ninjas was created.
After the loss of license to Sax Rohmer's books, Marvel used other names to refer to Fu Manchu and Si-Fan.
In Marvel Knights #12-14 (2001), Zheng Zu is shown having a group of dacoits, their clothing and weapons resemble those of ninjas, just like the Si-Fan were portrayed in various stories.
Fu Manchu was called Comte de Saint Germain and Han, in Eyes of Dragon story arc, it was revealed that his real name was Zheng Zu, Si-Fan came to be called The Celestial Order of the Hai-Dai. In the miniseries Shang-Chi (2020), it was revealed that the organization's real name is the Five Weapons Society, founded by brothers Zheng Zu and Zheng Yi during the Qing Dynasty to defend China, after Yi's death, Zu turned the Society into a criminal organization.
- The Hand of Fu Manchu (1917) (also known as The Si-Fan Mysteries)
- Daughter of Fu Manchu (1931)
- The Mask of Fu Manchu (1932)
- The Bride of Fu Manchu (1933)
- The Trail of Fu Manchu (1934)
- President Fu Manchu (1936)
- The Drums of Fu Manchu (1939)
- The Island of Fu Manchu (1940)
- The Shadow of Fu Manchu (1948)
- Re-Enter Fu Manchu (1957)
- Emperor Fu Manchu (1959)
Fu Manchu novels not by Rohmer
Ten Years Beyond Baker Street (1984)
The first of two authorized continuation novels by Cay Van Ash, Sax Rohmer's former assistant and biographer. The novel is set in a narrative gap within The Hand of Fu Manchu and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes story, His Last Bow (both published in 1917). Holmes comes out of retirement to aid Dr. Petrie when Nayland Smith is abducted by the Si-Fan.
The organization appears in the comedy film The Fiendish Plot of Fu Manchu (1980).
In the film, the role of Si-Fan is played by the Ten Rings organization, led by Xu Wenwu, a composed character of Mandarin and Zheng Zu.