The first recordable instance of human habitation in what would become Scotland was about 12,800 years ago. The first permanent settlements were established in 9,500, and villages began to appear around 6,000 years ago. Mainly these buildings were made of stone due to the scarcity of trees in the region. The Romans first arrived in Scotland around 43 AD, when they were also in control of Wales and England, collectively known as the province of Britannia. The native people of Scotland, known at the time as the Caledonians, resisted Roman rule, and were involved in a number of skirmishes with the legions and forts there. Their early attempts at resistance were successful, and they were almost able to destroy the entire 9th Legion. Between 83 and 84 the Caledonians were defeated by Gnaeus Julius Agricola. This defeat allowed the Romans to establish forts, mainly along what is known as the Gask Ridge, with only one fort established further north near present-day Inverness. By 87 they had retreated further south. In 122 construction of the Hadrian Wall began, to control the tribes living on both sides. In 142 the Antonine Wall was constructed further north. In 162 the wall was abandoned, and the Romans retreated to the Hadrian Wall. It was returned to briefly in 208, after a series of attacks that began in 197. It was again abandoned in 210. The Romans mainly made no further effort to control Scotland, and left Brittania soon after. Around 400 Irish Gaels established Dal Riata along the western coast of Scotland.
The Picts were the next major kingdom to inhabit Scotland, and was the basis for what would later be known as Scotland. They first arose in the Dark Ages. They were not a particularly powerful group until the Battle of Dun Nechtain, which occurred in 685, and during which they limited the northern advancement of the Northumbrians. Much of Scotland remained in Pictish hands, and by the early 8th century Dal Riata had come under the control of the Pictish king. In the 9th century, the Picts were attacked, as were their southern neighbours, by Vikings. This brought about the eventual end of the Pictish kingdom, and the founding of the new kingdom of Alba. The first king of this new country was allegedly Kenneth MacAlpin, who reigned until 858. They remained largely the same until the 12th century, although they began to absorb a predominantly Gaelic culture. In the early 12th century the Davidian Revolution took place, and burghs began to be legally defined, the government was reorganized, and cultural and religious osmosis began to take place. By the 13th century Alba had spread to about the modern borders of Scotland. In the late 13th century the traditional line of succession was broken by the death of Margaret, Maid of Norway, and the Wars of Scottish Independence were began between England and Scotland. The first war ended in 1328, but the fighting was soon restarted in 1332, finally ending in 1357. The ultimate result of these was that Scotland retained its independence from England. The House of Stuart was established in 1371, when Robert II ascended to the throne. The Scots maintained close relationships with the French during this period, even fighting on their side during the Hundred Years' War. In 1496 public education was instituted in Scotland, the first such system since Sparta.
In the 16th century Scotland was at its most powerful as an independent nation. It was led by James IV, who fostered good relations with the Tudors of England. In 1603 James VI, who had ascended to the Scottish throne upon his mother's abdication in 1567, ascended to the English throne after the death of his cousin once removed, Queen Elizabeth. This unified England and Scotland. In 1698 the country, which had already undergone famine in the early years of the decade, was bankrupted by an investment scheme which fostered a union between the Scottish elite and England. In 1706 the Treaty of Union was passed, and in 1707 the Acts of Union were passed, creating the Kingdom of Great Britain. Trade immediately increased as tariffs were abolished. The Scottish Enlightenment had begun in the 18th century, and by 1750 a majority of the population was literate, more than in most of Europe. This era also saw great Scottish achievements in philosophy, engineering, architecture and many other disciplines. During the First World War Scotland fought on the side of the Allies, with just under 700,000 soldiers involved in the fighting. Scotland was also involved in the Second World War, and radar was invented by the Scottish Robert Watson-Watt. After the war Scotland began to suffer economically due to overseas competition, though it has recently seen financial success. In 1973 Scotland, as a constituent part of the United Kingdom, joined the European Union. The Scotland Act 1998 returned control of domestic Scottish affairs to a newly-formed Scottish Parliament and Scottish Government.
Scotland is an Island located in the Atlantic Ocean. It is part of the United Kingdom, which is composed of England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. It takes up the northern third of the island of Great Britain, and shares a land border only with England. It also contains upwards of 790 islands. The capital of Scotland is Edinburgh, which is the second largest city in the country, and a major financial centre.
There are approximately 5,194,000 people in Scotland. A majority of the people identify as Caucasian, with a majority of these identifying as Scottish. The next largest ethnic group identifies as mixed, followed by South Asian, a majority of whom is Pakistani or Indian, followed by Black and then by Chinese. The dominant religion is Christianity, with about 75% of the population, most of whom belong the the Church of Scotland. The next largest group is Roman Catholic. About 28% of the population identifies as having no religion, while 0.8% gives their religion as Islam.
The main and official language spoken in Scotland is English. As well, the Scots language, which can be divided into Doric, Central and Border, and Gaelic are recognized regional dialects.
As a country with a fascinating and varied history, Scottish characters have often appeared in comics, as have many been set there. What follows is a partial list of such characters and locations.
Characters from Scotland:
James Bond (Dark Horse)
Hellboy (Dark Horse)
MacBeth (Slave Labor)
Connor Macleod (Dynamite)
Duncan Macleod (Dynamite)
Joseph MacTaggert (Marvel)
Moira MacTaggert (Marvel)
Jamie McCrimmon (Panini)
Scrooge McDuck (Disney)
Mirror Master (DC)
Montgomery Scott (IDW)
Scottish Characters from History or Mythology:
Loch Ness Monster