Robert and Moira Queen founded the company Queen Industries in the mid-50's or early 60's, and left it all to their son Oliver after they were killed by a pride of lions during a safari in Africa. Oliver squandered his fortune for years as a thrill-seeking playboy, until a shipwreck marooned him on Starfish Island. The incident changed him, and he came back to Star City a wiser man, determined to use his resources for the good of his city. Having mastered archery during his time on the island, he donned a green suit, mask and hood, armed himself with hi-tech equipment, and began fighting crime as the vigilante Green Arrow.
A few years into his secret career as a superhero, Oliver adopted a young boy named Roy Harper and raised him as his own. Roy would then become Green Arrow's sidekick Speedy, before ultimately becoming an independent hero operating under the alias Arsenal. It was around this time that he met Dinah Lance, the heroine known as Black Canary. Their off-again, on-again romance would last for years and became a major characteristic for both characters.
During the Grell era, Oliver would meet a mysterious Japanese archer named Shado. Years after their first encounter, Shado accidentally shot an arrow into Oliver's chest. While nursing him back to health, she took advantage of his weakened, delirious state and raped him, becoming pregnant and later conceiving a son named Robert. She kept the boy away from his father, raising him on her own. Prior to that, Oliver had also fathered a son named Connor during a brief fling with Sandra Hawke. When Connor grew up, he followed in his father's footsteps as the Green Arrow, even becoming a member of the Justice League.
Meanwhile, Roy fell in love with the villain Cheshire during an undercover operation, and they had a daughter named Lian: Oliver's first grandchild. During the Winnick run of Green Arrow, Oliver would also adopt a young girl named Mia Dearden, a former teenage prostitute who'd been selling her body for food and shelter and had become HIV-positive as a result. Taking her under his roof, he arranged for the best medical care available, and eventually she persuaded him into letting her become his sidekick, the new Speedy.
During the same run, Oliver and Dinah resolved their differences and reaffirmed their love for each other. They were married in a ceremony attended by nearly the entire superhero community. But this happiness would not last long. The villain Prometheus crippled Roy and detonated a bomb in Star City that killed Lian. Overwhelmed by rage and grief, Oliver hunted Prometheus down and executed him with an arrow through the head. After his arrest, he and Black Canary divorced.
The mother of Suzanne "Cissie" King-Jones, a since-retired heroine who went by the codename Arrowette, once claimed Cissie was the illegitimate daughter of Green Arrow rather than the daughter of Bernell Jones. But this has not been confirmed, and is of questionable veracity.
The character Olivia Queen is the daughter of Oliver Queen and Black Canary from the Kingdom Come reality, and uses her mother's alias as a superheroine.
The character Thea Queen is a member of the Queen family on the CW television series Arrow. She is Oliver's younger sister, and her nickname "Speedy" is a reference to Green Arrow's sidekick from the comics. In the second season, it was revealed that she is actually Malcolm Merlyn's daughter, the product of a short-lived affair her mother once had. Thea also appears in the Arrow digital tie-in comics.
Walter Steele is also a member of the Queen family on Arrow, as Moira's second husband after Robert's death.