@bullpr: I don’t remember there ever being stated that there were camps and weapons set-up at all. I’ve seen no one mention this either.
Judging from the leaks of earlier versions of this movie the MCU has been around long before the events of the film.
They neutralized the x-men with non-conventional weapons. For the camp, I caught that in the background noise after the incident with Jean. To be confirmed with a second viewing, but I won't do that now.
The MCU appeared for the first time in this movie, and more precisely after the anti-mutant bill was approved/passed/was signed.
From what I remember, you were as disappointed as I was by the lack of consistency between Logan and the events depicted in the previous movies.