Pakistan is an Islamic Republic bordering Afghanistan, Iran, India and the People's Republic of China. A mountainous corridor separates it from Tajikistan. Pakistan has the second largest Muslim population in the world, following Indonesia. It has the largest Shia Muslim population.
It was a British colony until gaining independence in 1947. It has had several territorial conflicts with its sibling state, India. Part of Pakistan gained independence in 1971, forming the new state of Bangladesh.