The Jedi Temple was been on Coruscant for over 4,000 years, seeing many conflicts and even suffering destruction.
In 3,653 BBY (Before the Battle of Yavin), the temple was attacked and partially destroyed by Vitiate's Sith Empire, the ground assault led by Darth Malgus. The Jedi Order moved to Tython, making that their headquarters for the duration of the Sith-Republic Cold War. The Temple was eventually rebuilt.
In 19 BBY, at the very end of the Clone Wars, Chancellor Palpatine - revealed to be Darth Sidious - executed Order 66, which orders that clones must turn against their Jedi commanders for treason against the Galactic Republic. Throughout the galaxy, countless Jedi were executed by their soldiers. Sidious sent a group of soldiers from the 501st Legion led by his new apprentice, Darth Vader, to the Jedi Temple - in a mission that would be known as "Operation: Knightfall" - where they cut down every Jedi they could find, including the younglings. The Temple was set ablaze, fire from the Temple visible in the night sky and smoke still rising for at least about a day after.
The Temple lay in ruins for decades during the rule of the Empire, which lasted over twenty years. About ten years later, a Jedi Headquarters built on the ruins of the old Temple was utilized by Luke Skywalker's New Jedi Order After Coruscant was retaken by the Galactic Alliance from the Yuuzhan Vong, a new Temple was constructed and used by the New Jedi Order. The new Temple had a pyramid shaped exterior that covered the interior of the Temple.
A hundred years later, the Temple was taken by the One Sith; however, the Temple had been mostly abandoned by that point, as the Jedi had mostly relocated to Ossus during that time. After the defeat of the One Sith, it is possible that the Jedi returned to their Temple.