I saw the earlier version of this battle which gave Doctor Doom prep, and the overwhelming consensus was that Doom would obliterate Surfer. I’m going to present different circumstances.
There is no prep. The two of them were wandering the galaxy on their own missions when they encounter each other on some random neutral location, like an uninhabited moon or planet, and realize that they are standing in the way of each other’s respective objectives. So while they may not have direct preparation per se, they are in the mindset of being ready for a fight.
In character, but their missions are important and will go to whatever lengths is necessary and in their character to win the fight.
No BFR, banishment, or anything like that. They are aware of each other’s capabilities and know the other could probably escape anything they’re trapped in. Confirmed kill or otherwise complete incapacitation is necessary.
Doctor Doom has whatever he normally carries around with him while traversing the galaxy and is anticipating danger, but again, he had no idea that he would be facing specifically the Surfer at some point.
Round 1: Whatever power levels they were at at their first meeting when Doom stole Surfer’s powers before they could fight. But of course with no prep, Doom doesn’t have the tool he used to do so.
Round 2: Pre-annihilation versions.
Round 3: Current versions.
Mainly I’m very confused. Offhandedly I would say that Doom couldn’t beat someone of Surfer’s power without full prep for it, but I can’t seem to find a single encounter where Surfer actually wins. Then again, it seemed there was some plot device or prep going on in each of those encounters as well. So yeah. Have at.